800伏充电是如何实现的?(2)

发布时间:2018-12-30 04:09    
Older DC chargers

对于上一代直流充电器

Many and probably most of the new-generation of DC chargers will be capable of putting out the higher voltage levels even when configured for more modest overall power output. For example, ChargePoint’s new line of charger hardware supports configurations with output limits as low as 63 kW and 156A. That is only modestly higher than the 50 kW and 125A limits of older products yet the new equipment supports voltages up to 1000V mostly because it shares internal components with higher-end charger products.

对于许多或者说绝大多数新一代的直流充电器而言,即使是输出功率一般,其电压等级也都变得更高。比如,ChargePoint的新一代充电器的硬件规格支持的输出限值仅为63千瓦和156安培。这样的数值仅仅比之前的产品(50千瓦和125安培)稍微高出一些,却可以支持1000伏的电压等级,这是因为其内部零部件与更高等级的充电产品在硬件方面是共用的。

The older charger designs with a 500V limit have already been installed at thousands of locations and that generation of equipment may continue to sell for a few years at discounted prices to charging providers for use in so-called community charging near residences and businesses or in rural areas with limited utility power and low traffic volume.

上一代的设计为500伏的充电产品已经安装在了数以千计的充电站,而且未来几年这样的产品还会以打折的价格出售给充电商。这些运营商会将这些充电器用在居民区和商业区周边的的被称作社区充电的项目上,或者将其装配在供电设施有限的郊区及交通流量较小的地区。

Porsche has said that the Mission E can charge at older stations limited to 500V. This means the battery pack has to somehow adapt to handle the correct charging voltage.

保时捷表示Mission E在上一代充电站进行充电的电压等级为500伏。这就意味着它的电池组在一定程度上有适应电压等级的能力。

One way is to add some additional “DC to DC” circuitry inside the car between the DC charger and the battery pack that can boost the incoming voltage from around 400V to around 800V but building the circuits to do this at over 100 kW might be too expensive or bulky.

一种方法是在车内直流充电器和电池组之间安装一个DC-DC电路设置,这样可以把充电电压400伏增压至800伏。但是,以这样的方法增加超过100千瓦的充电功率未免过于昂贵而且体积过大。

Another alternative is to build two 400V sub-packs that are connected together in parallel as one pack at chargers that are limited to 500V but connected in series for 800V at chargers that can handle the higher voltage limits. This dynamic reconfiguration of the internal pack connections can be done using giant relays called “contactors”.

另一种方法是将电池组分成两部分,各400伏。使用500伏电压充电时,这两个部分并联;使用800伏充电时这两部分串联。电池组内部连接的动态设置可以通过一种叫做接触器的大型继电器实现。

Contactors are already used in battery packs in order to disconnect the pack from the charging connector pins for safety reasons when not charging. Contactors are also used to disconnect the pack from the rest of the car when it is turned off or after a major collision.

通常情况下,接触器在电池组里扮演的角色是在未充电情况下断开电池组和充电连接器,以确保安全。并且,在车辆关闭状态情况下或是发生碰撞时断开电池组与车辆的连接。

Porsche hasn’t disclosed how the Mission E will implement support for charging at 400 volts versus 800 volts.

保时捷并未公开Mission E的400伏与800伏充电方面的技术方案。

The Porsche Mission E concept car shown while not charging at 800V.

保时捷Mission E 的概念车展车也不支持800伏充电。

The engineers also have to decide which voltage level the rest of the car uses. It’s entirely possible to quick charge the battery at 800V but actually use 400V when driving.

工程师们也需要去决定以后的量产车型如何选择充电技术。使用800伏的充电技术并且仅适用于400伏行驶是完全可行的。

The advantage of using 400V is that more “off the shelf” parts are available from suppliers. Existing high voltage parts like cabin heaters and the like can also be reused from earlier 400V vehicles like the VW e-Golf and some existing cable connectors can be reused that have not been certified for 800V.

400伏技术的优势是在零部件供应方面有很多供应商可以选择。如驾驶舱加热器等现存的高压零部件以及大众e-Golf上的400伏电压的零部件都可以实现借用,但是800伏电压所需的一些接插件并未经过验证。

The internal wiring and components inside the motor may also be somewhat easier to electrically insulate at 400V although the motors used in hybrids from Toyota, Honda, Hyundai and other companies already use battery power boosted up to 600 to 700 volts in order to improve their torque density.

虽然丰田、本田、现代以及其他制造商的混动车型为了提高扭矩密度已将电压升至600-700伏,但是在400伏电压等级电机内部的线束以及零部件的绝缘应该会更加容易一些。

As far as the Mission E, a Porsche spokesman has been quoted as implying that the engineering team actually decided to design all of the car’s components to work at 800V.

至于Mission E,保时捷的一位发言人表示,保时捷已经安排了技术团队进行全车零部件都满足800伏电压等级的设计工作。

Either way, there may need to be a modest DC to DC voltage converter circuit to feed some high voltage components like the cabin heater when the car is charging at the “wrong” voltage.

无论怎样,车辆将会配备对应型号的DC-DC电压转换电路,以确保在400伏充电时车内如驾驶舱加热器这样的800伏零部件可以工作。

The extra bits of circuitry or extra contactors necessary to handle both voltage ranges add cost. Most electric cars in the near future will be using battery cells tuned for high energy density, modest charging rates and low cost. So, only a select few luxury and sports cars may be enabled for charging above 500V for now.

这些用来处理电压问题的附加的电路或接触器将会带来成本增加的问题。从近期来看,众多电动车的技术方向还是提升电芯能量密度,保持适当的充电速率,并其注重成本控制。所以,目前来看只有少量的豪华车和跑车可以使用500伏以上的充电技术。

A few other car makers, primarily Nissan, use a Japanese DC charging plug called CHAdeMO. That standard is being updated to support 1,000V charging later this year but no vehicle designs have been announced yet that will take advantage of it.

另一些厂商,如日产,所使用的是被称为CHAdeMO标准的充电插头。今年年底该标准也将升级到支持1000伏,但是还没有任何一家厂商宣称这将有利于车辆设计。

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